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50 THINGS EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW

(or 50 Completely Useless Facts!)

 

 

 

 

The word "queue" is the only word in the English language that is still pronounced the same way when the last four letters are removed.

Beetles taste like apples, wasps like pine nuts, and worms  like fried bacon.

Of all the words in the English language, the word 'set' has the most definitions!

What is called a "French kiss" in the English speaking world is known as an "English kiss" in France.

"Almost" is the longest word in the English language with all the letters in alphabetical order.

"Rhythm" is the longest English word without a vowel.

In 1386, a pig in France was executed by public hanging for the murder of a child

A cockroach
can live several weeks with its head cut off!

Human thigh bones are stronger than concrete.

You can't kill yourself by holding your breath

There is a city called Rome on every continent.

It's against the law to have a pet dog in Iceland!

Your heart beats over 100,000 times a day!

Horatio Nelson, one of England's most illustrious admirals was throughout his life, never able to find a cure for his sea-sickness.

The skeleton of Jeremy Bentham is present at all important meetings of the University of London

Right handed people live, on average, nine years longer than left-handed people

Your ribs move about 5 million times a year, everytime you breathe!

The elephant is the only mammal  that can't jump!

One quarter of the bones in your body, are in your feet!

Like fingerprints, everyone's tongue print is different!

The first known transfusion of blood was performed as early as 1667, when Jean-Baptiste, transfused two pints of blood from a sheep to a young man

Fingernails grow nearly 4 times faster than toenails!

Most dust particles in your house are made from dead skin!

The present population of 5 billion plus people of the world is predicted to become 15 billion by 2080.

Women blink nearly twice as much as men.

Adolf Hitler was a vegetarian, and had only ONE testicle.

 

Honey is the only food that does not spoil. Honey found in the tombs of Egyptian pharaohs has been tasted by archaeologists and found edible.

Months that begin on a Sunday will always have a "Friday the 13th."

Coca-Cola would be green if colouring weren’t added to it.

On average a hedgehog's 
heart beats 300 times a minute.

More people are killed each year from bees than from snakes.

The average lead pencil will draw a line 35 miles long or write approximately 50,000 English words.

More people are allergic to cow's milk than any other food.

Camels
have three eyelids to protect themselves from blowing sand.

The placement of a donkey's
eyes in its' heads enables it to see all four feet at all times!

The six official languages of the United Nations are: English, French, Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Spanish.

Earth is the only planet not named after a god.

It's against the law to burp, or sneeze in a church in Nebraska, USA.

You're born with 300 bones, but by the time you become an adult, you only have 206.

Some worms will eat themselves if they can't find any food!

Dolphins sleep with one eye open!

It is impossible to sneeze with your eyes open

The worlds oldest piece of chewing gum is 9000 years old!

The longest recorded flight  of a chicken is 13 seconds

Queen Elizabeth I regarded herself as a paragon of cleanliness. She declared that she bathed once every three months, whether she needed it or not

Slugs have 4 noses.

Owls are the only birds who can see the colour blue.

A man named Charles Osborne had the hiccups for 69 years!

A giraffe can clean its ears with its 21-inch tongue!

The average person laughs 10 times a day!

An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain

---------------------------------------------------
One of these amazing, but useless facts is false. Do you know which one?

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                        By : shamansourian

[ چهارشنبه بیست و دوم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 12:5 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary of Fun Words


 

Sometimes new words can be a lot of fun. This glossary contains three types of fun words: words that are unusually specific and therefore perfect for certain situations, like specious (seeming good or sound at first but lacking real merit) and apolaustic (wholly devoted to the seeking of enjoyment); words that are simply fun to say, like absquatulate (flee, make off; abscond) and quidnunc (a busybody or a gossip); and, my favorite, words for things you never knew there were words for, like omphalopsychite (one who contemplates his navel) and nothosonomia (the act of calling someone a bastard).

absquatulate

flee, make off; abscond.

agelast

one who never laughs.

aglet

the plastic tip on the end of a shoelace.

agrestic

characteristic of the country, rustic; also, unpolished or uncouth.

akimbo

of the arms, with the hands on the hips and elbows bent outward. "He stood akimbo and surveyed the wreckage."

anadromous

of fish, migrating up rivers from the sea to spawn in fresh water.

anile

like a doddering, foolish old woman.

anserine

goose-like; also, silly, foolish, or stupid.

anthropophagy

cannibalism.

apolaustic

wholly devoted to the seeking of enjoyment.

arcadian

idyllically pastoral, simple, or untroubled.

avuncular

of or pertaining to an uncle; also, uncle-like.

barratry

the offense of frequently stirring up lawsuits or quarrels; also, in maritime law, fraud or gross criminal negligence by a captain or crew at the expense of a ship's owner or of the owner of a ship's cargo.

bastinado

torture by beating on the soles of the feet.

bezonian

a scoundrel.

bibcock

a faucet that is bent downward

bibliobibuli

those who read too much.

biffy

a toilet or outhouse.

bodewash

dried buffalo dung, used as fuel for fire.

boeotian

stupid, dull, obtuse; also, such a person.

bolus

a large medicinal pill; also, a mass of chewed food.

boondoggle

an unnecessary activity or wasteful expenditure.

borborygmic

pertaining to the rumbling of one's stomach or intestines.

bosky

having an abundance of trees or shrubbery.

brobdingnagian

enormous, immense.

brummagem

cheap and showy but inferior and worthless.

buccal

of or pertaining to the cheek or the mouth.

bugaboo

something that causes baseless fear or worry; also, a false belief used to intimidate.

bumf

toilet paper; also, worthless paperwork, literature, or junk mail.

callipygian

having shapely buttocks. See also: steatopygic.

captious

apt to raise objections to trivial faults or defects; given to fault-finding; difficult to please.

caryatid

a draped female figure supporting an entablature.

caseifaction

the act of turning into cheese.

cataglottism

kissing with the tongue.

cerumen

earwax.

chatoyant

changing in luster or color, as cat's eyes.

chiaroscuro

distribution of light and shade in a picture

chthonic

dwelling in the underworld.

cicisbeo

a male escort or lover of a married woman.

collation

a light meal.

contumelious

insolently abusive and humiliating.

corrigendum

a mistake to be corrected, especially an error in a printed book.

corybantic

frenzied or agitated.

crapulous

given to, characterized by, or suffering from gross excess in eating and drinking.

cynosure

a center of attraction or admiration.

dandle

to dance (a child) on one's knees; the action taken by a dandler.

deasil

clockwise. See also: widdershins.

defenestrate

to throw out of a window

dendrochronology

the study of growth rings on trees.

dipsomania

uncontrollable craving for alcohol.

discalced

barefooted.

doddle

something easy or requiring little effort.

donnybrook

a brawl or heated public dispute.

dottle

the plug of unburned tobacco left in a pipe after smoking.

draggle

make wet and dirty by dragging on the ground.

duff

decaying matter in a forest

ecdysiast

stripper.

edacious

devouring, consuming, voracious.

eesome

pleasing to the eye.

emollient

characteristic of that which softens or soothes the skin.

enantiodromic

characteristic of something that has become its opposite.

energumen

one who is possessed by a demonic entity.

epeolatry

worship of words.

epigone

an undistinguished imitator or descendant of an illustrious person or family.

eructation

belching; also, discharge of a volcano.

esprit d'escalier

a remark that occurs to someone later, after it should have been said (often a witty retort that occurs after the moment to use it has passed).

estivate

to spend the summer.

esurient

hungry.

evancalous

pleasant to embrace.

expiscate

to learn through laborious investigation.

exsanguinate

to drain blood from.

factotum

employee or assistant who does just about everything.

fantods

a state of nervous irritability; the fidgets; the willies. "Waiting for this semester's report card is giving me the fantods."

fernticle

freckle.

fescue

a small stick used to point out letters to a child learning to read.

flews

the pendulous corners of the upper lip of certain dogs, such as the bloodhound.

floccinaucinihilipilification

the categorizing of something as worthless.

flummery

meaningless chatter; also, deceptive language.

footle

to talk or act foolishly; to waste time.

foudroyant

dazzling, flashing; also, thunderous, noisy.

friable

easily crumbled; crumbly.

frisson

an emotional thrill; a shudder of emotion.

frowzy

ill-smelling, musty; also, slovenly, unkempt.

fugacious

fleeting, transitory; difficult to capture.

funambulist

a tightrope walker

gallimaufry

jumble or medley; hodgepodge.

geck

a dupe.

genuflect

bend the knee and lower the body, especially in reverence.

gleek

to joke or jest.

gobbledygook

windy gibberish or jargon.

gorbellied

corpulent.

gormless

dull, stupid, clumsy.

gound

the gunk that collects in the corners of the eyes during sleep.

gowpen

two hands placed together to form a bowl-shape; also, the amount that can be contained in a pair of cupped hands.

graustark

an imaginary place of high romance.

grimthorpe

remodel or restore an old building without proper grounding or knowledge of its authentic character or without exercising care to remain faithful to its original quality and uniqueness; after Baron Grimthorpe, English lawyer and architect, restorer of St. Alban's cathedral.

hallux

big toe.

hangdog

shamefaced, browbeaten, or intimidated.

hebdomedal

weekly.

hircine

goat-like; also, lustful.

hirple

to hobble or walk lamely.

hornswoggle

bamboozle, deceive.

hoyden

a boisterous, carefree girl; a tomboy.

infucate

to apply cosmetics.

inglenook

a nook by a fireplace.

insouciant

blithely unconcerned.

insufflate

to blow on or breathe into.

izzat

honor, prestige, reputation.

jillick

to skip a stone across water.

jocoserious

combining serious and humorous matters.

jugulate

to slit the throat.

kalopsia

the delusion that things are more beautiful than they really are.

katzenjammer

a loud, discordant noise; also, a hangover; also, a state of depression or bewilderment.

kibitz

to look on and offer unsolicited, meddlesome advice; to make wisecracks when others are trying to work or speak seriously.

kickshaw

a trinket or bauble; a culinary delicacy.

lambent

softly radiant; of a light or flame, playing on a surface without burning it; also, dealing lightly and gracefully with a subject of discussion.

lapidate

to stone to death.

latrinalia

graffiti found in restrooms.

legerdemain

slight of hand; magic tricks.

liripipe

a long scarf or cord attached to and hanging from a hood.

ludic

characterized by playfulness.

macerate

to make or become soft by steeping in a liquid; also, to waste away by fasting.

madefy

moisten.

maffick

to rejoice with an extravagant and boisterous public celebration.

malinger

pretend to be ill in order to avoid work or shirk duty.

marmoreal

resembling marble.

mawkish

excessively or feebly sentimental; also, having a faint, sickly taste.

meldrop

a drop of mucus at the end of the nose.

mendacious

telling lies, especially habitually; untruthful.

miasma

a noxious atmosphere or influence; unpleasant or unwholesome air.

misprision

neglect or wrongful action committed by a public official.

moiety

about half of something.

monomania

obsession with one idea or interest.

moonglade

the bright reflection of the moon on a body of water.

mordant

bitingly sarcastic.

mosh

to engage in uninhibited, frenzied activities with others near the stage at a rock concert. See also: mosh pit.

mosh pit

the place near the stage at a rock concert where moshing occurs. See also: mosh.

mulct

to take money from, by taxation or by trickery.

mundungus

stinky tobacco.

myrmidon

an unscrupulously faithful follower; henchman.

napiform

resembling a turnip.

neologist

one who makes up new words.

nidify

to build a nest.

noctambulist

a sleepwalker; somnambulist.

nosocomephrenia

depression due to a prolonged hospital stay.

nothosonomia

the act of calling someone a bastard.

nudiustertian

pertaining to the day before yesterday.

nyctalopia

night blindness.

obdormition

numbness caused by pressure on a nerve, as when one's foot is "asleep."

obnubilate

cloud over, darken, or obscure.

ochlocracy

mob rule.

octothorpe

the '#' symbol; also, "octothorp."

omphalopsychite

one who contemplates his navel. See also: omphaloskepsis.

omphaloskepsis

contemplation of one's navel. See also: omphalopsychite.

opsimath

one who begins to learn late in life.

ort

a scrap of food left after a meal is completed.

osculate

kiss.

ovoviviparous

producing eggs that hatch within the female's body without obtaining nourishment from it.

oxter

armpit.

pandiculation

the stretching that accompanies yawning.

panjandrum

a pompous official or pretender; also, the mock title of a self-important person.

pantaloon

a man's close-fitting garment for the hips and legs, worn especially in the 19th century

pate

top of the head, usually a bald head.

penny-farthing

an old-fashioned kind of bicycle with a huge front wheel.

penultimate

next to last.

perendinate

to put off until the day after tomorrow; also, to keep postponing from day to day.

peripatetic

going from place to place; itinerant.

philtrum

the vertical groove between the nose and upper lip.

picaresque

of fiction, dealing with the adventures of a rogue.

pilose

covered with hair.

pilpul

a nitpicking, unproductive argument.

pinguid

fat; also, greasy.

placebo

a harmless substance given as medicine, usually to humor a patient.

poetaster

an inferior poet.

popinjay

a talkative and conceited person.

popliteal

of or pertaining to the back of the knee.

preponderate

to surpass others in numbers, intensity, force, or prowess.

prescind

turn aside.

psithurism

a low whispering sound, such as the rustle of leaves.

puckeroo

useless, broken.

pulchritude

attractiveness.

purulent

containing, consisting of, or discharging pus.

pusillanimous

timid, faint-hearted, or cowardly.

quidnunc

a busybody or a gossip.

quincunx

the pattern of five objects arranged such that four of the five objects form a square, while the fifth is positioned in the middle. "The dots on the '5' side of a die are arranged in a quincunx."

quisquilious

like rubbish; trashy, worthless.

raconteur

one skilled in telling stories.

rebarbative

causing aversion or irritation.

recension

an editorial revision of a literary work.

recidivist

one who continually commits crime and seems incurable of criminal tendencies.

recrudesce

of a disease, sore, or hostile feeling, to break out again.

renitent

resistant to pressure.

retroussé

turned up at the tip, especially a nose.

rhabdomantist

one who practices divination by means of a rod to locate underground water; a dowser.

riant

smiling.

sanguinary

bloodthirsty; murderous.

sanguine

cheerfully confident or optimistic; also, having a healthy, reddish color.

saturnine

characteristic of a person having a gloomy or forbidding appearance.

scuttlebutt

gossip.

seersucker

a light, thin fabric, such as cotton or rayon, with a crinkled surface and a usually striped pattern.

serendipity

the faculty of accidentally making happy, unexpected discoveries.

sericate

silky.

simous

having a very flat or snub nose, with the end turned up.

skosh

a small amount; a tad.

smithereens

fragments or splintered pieces.

snollygoster

a shrewd, unprincipled person.

sockdolager

a conclusive blow or remark; also, something outstanding.

somnambulist

a sleepwalker; noctambulist.

spanghew

to cause a frog or toad to fly up in the air.

spartle

to move the body or limbs in a sprawling or struggling manner.

specious

seeming good or sound at first but lacking real merit.

squabash

to crush with criticism.

squidger

the huge disc, or wink, used to propel other winks in the game of Tiddly-Winks.

squiffed

intoxicated.

steatopygic

having fat buttocks. See also: callipygian.

sternutation

the act of sneezing; also, a sneeze.

stymie

to thwart, stump, or obstruct.

subderisorious

ridiculing in moderation.

subfusc

drab, dusty.

suppurate

to form pus; to fester.

susurration

whispering, murmuring, or rustling.

sycophant

one who attempts to gain a personal advantage by servile flattery.

tantalolagnia

arousal caused by teasing.

tantivy

a headlong dash or rapid gallop; also, characteristic of one in a tantivy; also, the blare of a trumpet or horn. "The man was running tantivy after the thief."

tauromachy

the art of bullfighting.

tenebrific

producing darkness; obscuring.

tergiversate

to turn one's back on one's party or cause; also, to make evasive statements or equivocate.

termagant

a shrewish, bullying woman.

thewy

muscled, brawny.

tintinnabulous

of or relating to bells or the ringing of bells.

tizzy

a state of nervous excitement or confusion; a dither.

tohubohu

a state of chaos, disorder, and confusion.

tonsure

the shaving of the head of those entering certain priesthoods or monastic orders; also, the part of the head left bare after such a shaving.

tragus

the little flap of cartilage that projects over the hole in one's ear.

trollop

a promiscuous woman.

twee

affectedly cute or quaint; overly precious or nice.

ultra-crepidarian

giving opinions or criticism beyond one's own range of experience.

ululate

lament loudly and shrilly; wail.

umbrage

the feeling of being offended.

undulate

sway in place.

uvula

the thing that hangs down in the back of one's throat.

vermiculate

having wavy, wormlike lines or motion; sinuous, tortuous.

vexillologist

one who studies flags.

vicarious

characteristic of feelings or emotions felt or shared imaginatively through the feelings or emotions of another person.

vicissitude

a change of circumstances affecting one's life.

walla-walla

the unintelligible sound made by many people talking at once.

welter

wriggle, writhe.

whelm

to cover or engulf completely, usually with disastrous effect.

whinge

complain fretfully, whine.

widdershins

counterclockwise; also, in a contrary direction. Same as "withershins." See also: deasil.

withershins

 

 

                                                                                             By : shahmansourian

[ چهارشنبه بیست و دوم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 11:16 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

TIPS FOR LEARNING ENGLISH

 

Don' t worry! 

English can seem difficult, but please don't be nervous, try to relax. If you relax, it

can be fun learning English.

Don't worry about the mistakes!

You are learning so it's normal to make mistakes. Everybody makes mistakes.

If you make a mistake you can normally be understood. Your answers don't need

to be perfect. If you could speak perfect English you wouldn't need to learn it.

Speak

It is very important to try to speak. If you say nothing because you are shy or 

afraid, no one will know if you can speak English or what you think or want. 

Always try to say something! The worst answer to any question is silence.

 You will normally be understood. If you are not understood say it again, maybe 

                            try using different words.

Speak loudly , you will sound more confident and your English will be clearer 

if you speak loudly. If you speak very quietly and nobody can hear you it will 

be difficult to understand you and people may think you can't speak.

Think

You need  to think about what you are doing all the time. If you are listening 

think about what  you are listening for, while you are speaking,  think about what you 

are talking about, what you need to say. While you are reading think about what

information you are reading for and while you are writing think about what you are

writing about. Think about what you are trying to learn.

Ask question

Don't be afraid to ask questions. If you don't understand something ask!

Don't be shy about asking.  You are probably not the only person who doesn't 

understand. We all get confused sometimes and teacher and books don't 

always explain things well.

Practice

Practice, practice, practice and practice!!! This is the most important part of 

learning a language. You don't need to be very clever to learn to speak English

but you need to practice. You need to practice in the classroom (not fall asleep)

and you need to practice out side of the class room too. Look at the work you

have studied already. Maybe practice with your friends. You can also listen to 

the radio (In Thailand 99.5 FM is a good example), listen to songs, read magazines 

(the Bangkok Post, Student weekly etc.) and books and watch movies and videos.

It's up to you

If you want to learn English you must try to learn it yourself. Your teacher and your

friends can't learn it for you! They can only help you, it's up to you to learn!

*Be confident-You can do it!

                                                                                      

 

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 12:23 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

What is the difference between

 

England and Britain

(or Great Britain)? Three countries make up Great Britain:

England, Scotland and Wales. So England is part of Great

Britain, and a Scotsman (a person of Scottish origin) is

British, too. A person born in Wales is Welsh, and they

are British, too. Northern Ireland is part of the United

Kingdom, or “the UK”. So the UK is made up of four

countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern

Ireland, the last of which is not part of Great Britain. The

formal name of the country is the “United Kingdom of

Great Britain and Northern Ireland”, but in everyday

speech Britain is often used to mean the UK, though, as

you have seen, this is not perfectly correct. The word

“great” was added to “Britain” several hundred years ago

, in the Middle Ages, when the English kings had lands in

 what is now France, and a certain part of it was called

Britanny. To avoid confusion, they added the word

“great” to the name of the land which was larger

By: shamansourian

 

 

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 11:47 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

 

English Sounds and Spelling Introduction to the Vowels

 English spelling is challenging because its sounds are not
very well represented by the letters used in writing it.
Unlike many languages, English writing is not phonetic:
most English sounds have several very different spellings.

One particularly frustrating area in English is how its
vowel sounds are spelled. The spellings of these sounds
are particularly confusing because there are only five
vowel letters (a, e, i, o, u) in English, but there are
at least 14 vowel sounds in standard American English.
To make this situation even more complicated, the letters
w and y are used in writing both vowel and consonant
sounds. Also, most English vowel sounds change when
they are followed by the / r / sound.

  Examples of Vowel Sounds, plus key words:

beat

 

bit

 

bait

 

bet

 

bat

but

fool

 

full

 

foal

 

fall

 

follow

foul

 

 

foil

 

 

file

 

 

_____________________________________________

 

Special Notes:

1.

 

Vowels are sounds like the last sound in may,
be, hi, go, and who.

Consonants are sounds like the first sound in
be, see, do, foe, go, hay, joy, key, chew,
lie, may, now, pie, raw, so, she, too, thigh,
thy, view, way, and zoo.

 

 

 

2.

 

Vowels are grouped in several different ways.

In one group (which is often used by native
speakers), several vowels are classified as
being long or short.

Long vowels include the sounds shown in
the key words bait, beat, file, foal, fool,
also fuel.

Short vowels include the sounds shown in
the key words bat, bet, bit, follow, and full.

 

 

 

3.

 

Another classification groups vowels
according to the position of the tongue
when the vowels are pronounced.

The front vowels include the sounds in
the key words beat, bit, bait, bet, and bat.

The back vowels include the sounds in
the key words fool, full, foal, fall, and follow.

 

 

 

4.

 

Another classification groups vowels
according to the amount of tension in
the tongue when the vowels are pronounced.

The vowels in the key words beat, bait,
fool, and foal are sometimes called tense
vowels. The vowels in the key words bit,
bet, full, and fall are sometimes called
called lax vowels.

 

 

 

5.

 

The vowel sound in but is called schwa.

 

 

 

6.

 

The vowels shown in the key words foul,
foil, and file are called diphthongs.

Diphthongs are actually combinations of
two vowel sounds.

 

 

 

7.

 

The diphthong in foul is pronounced in
two different ways. In some American
English dialects, the first vowel is / a /
(the sound of o in hot). In other dialects,
the first vowel is / ae / (the sound of a
in hat).

 

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 11:36 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

Learn Synonyms

Synonyms - are words that mean the same thing. When you have learnt a new word see if there are any synonyms for it.  It expands your vocabulary and it will make your English more interesting and less repetitive.

There are several online dictionaries that can help: Thesaurus.com | Synonym.com| Rhymezone.com

Yet again using flash cards as a memory aid can help.  Write the word you know on one side of the card and the most common synonyms for that word on the other side. See how many you can remember.



 

 

 

 

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 11:34 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

Confusing Words: Bring and Take, by Dennis Oliver

 

Confusing Words:
Bring and Take

 

The very common verbs bring and take are sometimes
troublesome for learners of English. One reason this happens
is because bring and take have almost identical meanings
but are used for different "directions" in English: bring
shows movement toward the speaker, but take shows
movement away from the speaker.

If A needs something and wants B to get it and carry it
to him or her, A says, "Could you bring ___ to me?"
(or "Could you bring me ___ ?").

If A has something and A wants B to get it and carry
it to C, A says, "Could you take ___ to C?" (B then
takes ___ from A and takes it to C.)

More examples:

Please take the baby from her bed and bring her to me.

If you want some tea, I'll be happy to bring a cup to you.

If you're finished with your tea, I'll be be happy to take
your cup to the kitchen.

I'll be happy to take the cup from you and take it
to the kitchen.

You father is in his office and his mail just came.
Could you please take it to him? He's expecting you
to bring it to him.

 

______________________________________________

 

Remember:

 

Bring shows movement toward the speaker:

bring ----> speaker

Take shows movement away from the speaker:

speaker ----> take

wrong:


right:

 

*Could you bring your father's
mail to him? He's upstairs.

Could you take your father's
mail to him? He's upstairs.

 

 

 

wrong:


right:

 

*I need my calculator. Could you
take it to me, please?

I need my calculator. Could you
bring it to me, please?

 

 

 

wrong:


right:

 

*Mr. Smith is right over there.
Could you bring this to him?

Mr. Smith is right over there.
Could you take this to him?

 

___________________________________________

 

Special Note

In some dialects of American English, people do not
make a difference between bring and take. This seems
very strange to people for whom bring and take
are different.

 

 A Little More Information on
Bring and Take
by Dennis Oliver

 

In general, bring shows movement toward the speaker
and take shows movement away from the speaker.
These two common verbs can be more complicated,
however, because both bring and take can be used
with to and from.

If A has a favorite picture at home and wants to put it
on his or her office desk, A brings the picture from
home when he / she brings the picture to the office.
We can also say that A takes the picture from home
when she / he takes the picture to the office. (Bring is
used when the reference is the office; take is used when
the reference is home.)

If B (a child) sees that her/his baby sister has some
matches, B will probably take the matches from the
baby and then take the matches to his / her mother
or father. If B's mother or father wants the matches,
she / he will probably say, "Take those matches from
the baby and bring them to me!"

If it is lunchtime and C's (another child's) father is
working in his home office, C's mother might say,
"Please take this sandwich and tea to your father and
when he's finished, please bring the plate and cup
back to me."

 

____________________________________________

 

More examples:

Father: "The newspaper is outside the door. I'd like
to read it. Can you get it

Father asked me to take the newspaper
from outside the door and bring it to him.

Father: "Here's an interesting article in the
newspaper. I think your mother would like to
read it. I want to see it again after your mother has
finished with it."

First, I took the newspaper to
my father. While he was looking at
it, he saw an article and asked if
I could take the article to my mother
and then bring it back to him when
she was finished with it.

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 11:29 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

How to Write Well: Tips and Steps

to Achieve First-Rate Writing

 



There are many reasons people want to develop their

writing skills. The good news is that this is possible. Even

 better, is that you don’t have to be a genius to be a good

 writer. It just takes a little time, patience, and practice.

 

With the right guidance, in no time you will be learning

how to write well.

Tips for Writing Well

Perhaps one of the most valuable tips for being able to

write well is to develop your vocabulary. It is just

common sense that the more words you know and the

better you understand their meanings, the better you will

 write. We often hear the saying 'practice makes perfect'.

 With writing, this saying is quite true. The more you

write, the better you become.

In many circles, people will provide critiques of your

writing. This might be in a professional setting, such as a

 business report or academic paper. Make sure you listen

to these critiques. They are often provided by more

experienced writers and can help no end when learning

how to write well.

Enjoying research also helps your writing skills. The more

 you know about a topic, the easier it is to write and the

 clearer your message will be. Also, make sure that you

 write in a logical and organized fashion. If your writing

does not flow and is all over the place, the reader will not

 be able to understand it and will most likely not finish reading it.

 

Follow the rules of grammar and punctuation. You cannot

 write well if you do not understand or use the formalities

 of writing. People will consider your writing to be of

quality and, thus, your ideas. Using these rules makes the

 writing piece read better. There are many ways you can

develop such writing formalities. One of the easiest is

with the use of electronic tutorials, such as the How to

Write Well tutorial from Write 101. This includes four

tutorials: grammar; vocabulary; punctuation; and

 

sentences and paragraphs.

When you write, try not to use long-winded sentences.

 This can really confuse readers. Focus your writing and

get to the point. Don’t try to impress with long sentences

 and big words. Your writing audience will appreciate the

ability to read easily. Along these same lines, make sure

your titles or headings accurately describe the content of

your writing. You want catchy titles; however, if they

don’t reflect the content, readers will be unhappy and will

 quit reading part-way through the content.

Writing well is about getting the facts right. If you

misinform readers about facts they will consider the rest

of your writing to be unprofessional and of poor quality.

When writing, try to get the words right first and

foremost. It might take a bit of juggling around but the

right word in the right spot is worth more to good

writing than almost anything. Do not place a word in text

just because it sounds good and you think it will impress readers.

Steps to Achieve Good Writing

When you start writing, make sure you know what you

are writing for. What is your goal? If you stick to this

throughout the writing process, you should not veer off

course. Once you’ve got this in mind, organize an outline

of your written piece. This outline will structure your writing.

Once you’ve worked out your outline, start writing. The

first phase of writing involves writing everything down.

Don’t worry about spelling or punctuation at this stage.

 As long as you can read it back, this is fine. The final

stage is editing. This is one of the most important phases

as it really polishes the piece and gives that final

credibility.

Learning how to write well is not rocket science. It is a

skill, like any other, that can come with practice and

effort.

‌By: shamansourian

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 11:3 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

Powerful Words



There are some words that just have it and some that don’t. When used in certain sentences, the words that have it can make all the difference. It could be a mediocre piece of writing, but with the use of a few powerful words it becomes engaging and action-packed reading.

Powerful words are essentially action verbs (see also, Parts of Speech). They are used to engage audiences. They are tools that give your communication energy and spark. Audiences take note and the message that you are seeking to convey is more likely to be heard:

·                                 Try to replace verb phrases with single verbs (Empire State College, 2009). Examples include replacing ‘give instructions to’ with ‘instruct’ and ‘in the majority of cases’ with 'usually'.

·                                 Powerful words are specific rather than vague (Empire State College, 2009). For example, replace ‘I was glad’ with ‘I jumped with excitement’.

·                                 Swap more general verbs with descriptive words to make the text more powerful. This might mean replacing ‘walked’ with ‘swagger' .

There are also tools that help you use powerful words when writing. For example, try the free plain language converter on this website to convert verb phrases to single verbs. And try products like the popular Ultimate Vocabulary software and the excellent StyleWriter.

Powerful words not only make your writing stand out, but they also make you stand out. You can use power words during a board meeting or in a work report. This will make sure what you say, or what you write, packs that much-needed punch and gets you noticed. It will make you stand out from the crowd. Nothing screams competency and aptitude more then a rich vocabulary and articulate and powerful speech.

Power words can be used and are extremely helpful in a variety of business environments. Whether it is when writing a resume or partaking in an important job interview, having knowledge of powerful words is a must.

Power words are also impressive when used in a social setting. You will become the life of a party with your action-packed and colorful stories. Turn boring routine happenings into vibrant goings-on just by changing your words. You don’t have to be that wilting flower in the corner anymore with power words. Once developed, they are sure to impress.

Developing power words is just a matter of time and patience. The more you have to do with them, the easier they will come. The next time you write or are asked to speak at a function, think about what you are going to say and substitute passive with action. Stand out and be noticed for all the right reasons with powerful words.

 

                                                                                                   By: shamansourian

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 10:53 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

Correct Grammar: Some Basics



Correct grammar is about knowing where words and their parts belong in sentences. It can include possessing knowledge of word categories, inflections, and how they operate and relate to other words within a sentence. Good grammar is fundamentally important to the way we communicate. If we lack knowledge about grammar, our communication suffers. This can produce flow-on effects into our lives and careers. Often, it doesn’t matter how intelligent or knowledgeable you are; if you lack the necessary grammar skills, you can lose credibility.

Some Grammar Basics

There are some basic aspects of grammar. Knowing these will improve your writing. Some of the basics of grammar include:

·                                 Nouns. These words are "things" — such as people, places, and ideas. In the sentence, "The cat sits on the mat", the nouns are "cat" and "mat".

·                                 Verbs. These words are "doing words" because they convey action — "run", "catch", "sing" are all examples of verbs. In the sentence, "The cat sits on the mat", the verb is "sits" because "sitting" is what the cat is doing.

·                                 Adjectives. Adjectives are "describing words" because they describe things — for example, a thing might be "exciting", "heavy", or "awkward". Adjectives add something extra to the sentence. In the sentence, "The black cat sits on the new mat", the adjectives are "black" and "new" since "black" is describing the "cat" and "new" is describing the "mat".

·                                 Adverbs. Like adjectives, adverbs add something extra to a sentence. Adverbs describe verbs (and adjectives and other adverbs). For example, you might run quickly, catch awkwardly, or sing badly. In the sentence, "The black cat sits quietly on the new mat", the adverb is "quietly" since it is describing how the "cat" is "sitting".

·                                 Subjects. The "subject" of a sentence is the thing that does the verb; in other words, the thing that conducts the action. In the sentence, "The cat sits on the mat", the subject is "The cat" because the cat is doing the action of "sitting".

·                                 Objects. The object is the thing that has the verb or action done to it. In the sentence, "The cat sits on the mat", the object is "the mat" because the mat is the thing that is having the verb being done to it — it is the thing being sat on.

·                                 Active voice and passive voice. "Active voice" and "passive voice" basically refers to the order in which you have placed the subject, verb, and object. The active voice goes: "subject, verb, object"; but the passive voice goes: "object, verb, subject". The sentence, "The cat sits on the mat" is in the active voice because the sentence is in the form of "subject ("the cat"), verb ("sits"), and mat ("object")." Put in the passive voice, the sentence becomes "The mat is being sat on by the cat". Clear writing usually comes from writing in the active voice. This is because the active voice usually conveys your point more quickly than the passive voice and prevents ambiguity by making it clear who did what to whom.

·                                 The difference between "that" and "which". There is a growing trend toward keeping a strict distinction between the words "that" and "which". The distinction is best explained using an example. Compare these sentences: "I like the cat that is sitting on the mat" versus "I like the cat, which is sitting on the mat". In the first sentence, the word "that" explains that I am looking at several cats; but, of all these cats, the cat I like is the cat that is sitting on the mat. The word "that" tells you that "sitting on the mat" is essential to my pointing out the cat I like. In the second sentence, the word "which" explains that I am looking at only one cat, which, by the way, happens to be sitting on the mat. Here, the words following "which" add an extra bit of information that is not necessary to my explaining the cat I like. If you support this distinction between "that" and "which", you would not write "I like the cat which is sitting on the mat" or "I like the cat, that is sitting on the mat". Keeping the distinction is important because the distinction, more often than not, prevents ambiguity (though there are occasions where ambiguity occurs even while keeping the distinction). Here are some more examples to think about. What is the difference between: "Buy me the milk that is high in fat" versus "Buy me the milk, which is high in fat"; "I visited the house that Jack built" versus "I visited the house, which Jack built"; "I like the primary school books that are easy to read" versus "I like the primary school books, which are easy to read".

 

 

By :shamansourian

 

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 10:43 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

How to Improve Your Vocabulary and Build Confidence


Tip: If you seriously want to improve your vocabulary, then we strongly suggest you try the popular Ultimate Vocabulary software. Click Ultimate Vocabulary for more information.*


Sometimes, we find ourselves in environments we are not accustomed to, such as a different work setting or social function. In such situations, we may find conversation does not flow. What about when we pick up a book that looks interesting, but we just can’t quite get the gist of it? How to improve your vocabulary and participate confidently becomes an important concern.

What is unusual about vocabulary is that you may possess significant knowledge of words in one area but lack in others (Curtis and Kruidenier, 2005). Despite believing we possess a good level of vocabulary knowledge, we can sometimes feel inadequate. Don’t be concerned; there are ways we can develop our vocabulary.

Things to consider when increasing your vocabulary

·                                 The more you read, the richer your vocabulary will become.

·                                 Just knowing the definition of a word does not indicate you understand it.

·                                 You must also understand it in context.

·                                 Knowing what a word means is connected to the background that the word is used within.

·                                 Words that are used in speaking or writing (ie “expressive vocabulary”) often require a greater understanding than those used in listening and reading (ie “receptive vocabulary”) (Allen, 2006).

Some methods to answer your questions on how to improve your vocabulary include: examining similarities and differences in word meanings; learning new words frequently; and keeping a written record of words, their meanings, and usage that you have learnt. Also, look at word associations, such as antonyms, synonyms, and roots; study words that signal connections to other words (ie signal words); and examine words that sound the same but are spelt differently and have different meanings (homophones) (California Department of Education, 2007).

Figure 1: Example of a vocabulary development exercise: Greek and Latin Root

 Taken from Texas Education Agency (2002) 31

According to the Texas Education Agency (2002), how to improve your vocabulary should occur through active learning. It is also suggested that you must explore definitional learning (for example, through synonyms and getting the learner to define meanings in their own words) and contextual understandings (such as putting words into different sentences and creating stories where the word is the main focus).

A Solution: Building Your Vocabulary

The popular Ultimate Vocabulary software product has adopted the above principles and offers a wide range of techniques to help build your vocabulary. Apart from the 50 usage examples, word history, visual word explorer, encyclopedia information, and images, for every single word, there are customizable Flash Cards; Synonym Memory; Word Antonym Memory; Word Recall and tests (such as synonym tests, antonym tests, definition tests, and word recall).

 By :shamansourian

 

                                                                                                      

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 10:39 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

ساخت شناسی واژگانی

ساخت شناسی واژگانی (morphology)

ساخت شناسی واژگانی، دانشی است که تکواژهای یک زبان را مورد بررسی قرار می دهد.

تکواژ (morpheme)، کوچکترین واحد معنی دار در هر زبان است. بدین ترتیب باید میان «واژه» و «کوچکترین واحد معنی دار» تفاوت قایل شد. برای مثال، «آموزگاران» یک واژه و سه تکواژ است:

۱)     “آموز” (بن مصدر آموزش)

۲)     پسوند “گار” (گار، نشانه انجام کاری از سوی کسی است. مثل آفریدگار یا گناهکار که در اصل گناهگار بوده است.)

۳)     علامت جمع “ان”

نمونه انگلیسی: واژه “tourists” هم از سه تکواژ تشکیل شده است:

۱)   ”tour”

2)    پسوند   “ist”

3)    علامت جمع “s”

اگر یک تکواژ در شرایط گوناگون، شکل های مختلفی به خود بگیرد، آنها را تکواژگونه های (allomorph) نمونه اصلی می نامیم. مثال ها:

الف. حرف تعریف در the apple که بصورت /thi/خوانده می شود، تکواژگونه ی the است.

ب. پیشوندهای “im” در impossible و “ir” در irregular، و “in” در “incorrect”، همگی تکواژگونه های پیشوند منفی ساز در انگلیسی اند.

ج. پسوندهای جمع s در books و z  در birds و Iz  درbenches همگی تکواژگونه های جمع انگلیسی اند.

برخی تکواژها را می توان به عنوان واژه، به تنهایی بکار برد. این دسته از تکواژها را تکواژهای مستقل (free morphemes)  می نامند. در واژه توریست،”tour”   تکواژمستقل است.

 برخی  تکواژها   را   نمی توان   بطور مستقل   بکار برد.  این   تکواژها  را  تکواژهای  وابسته (bound morphemes) می نامند. در واژه توریستس، “ist”  و “s”، تکواژهای وابسته اند.

در واژه که چند تکواژ وجود دارد، تکواژمستقل را بن (base, rout) می نامند.

بعضی از وند (affix)ها، نوع بن یا معنی واژه را تغییر نمی دهند. برای نمونه می توان به “s” جمع یا “s” مالکیت یا -ed (علامت گذشته) یا نظیر آنها اشاره کرد. به اینگونه وندها، وندهای تصریفی (inflectional affixes) می گوییم.

بعضی از وندها، نوع بن یا معنی واژه را تغیر می دهند. مانند ly, ment, al, ize و نظیر آنها. به اینگونه وندها، وندهای اشتقاقی (derivational affixes) می گوییم.

جدول زیر چند نمونه از «وند»های تصریفی و اشتقاقی در زبان انگلیسی را نشان می دهد:

نوع: اسم، اسم.  بنابراین وند تصریفی است. 

girl, girls.   tree, trees

معنی: داوری، پیشداوری. وند اشتقاقی است.

Judgment,  prejudgment

معنی: موافقت، عدم موافقت. وند اشتقاقی است.

Agreement,  disagreement

نوع: اسم، اسم.  بنابراین وند تصریفی است.

Dave,  Dave’s

نوع: فعل، فعل. بنابراین وند تصریفی است.

They work hard.   He works hard

نوع: صفت، قید. بنابراین وند اشتقاقی است.

slow, slowly

نوع: فعل، اسم. بنابراین وند اشتقاقی است.

govern, government

نوع: اسم، صفت. بنابراین وند اشتقاقی است.

emotion, emotional

نوع: صفت، فعل. بنابراین وند اشتقاقی است.

personal, personalize

نوع: صفت، صفت، صفت. وند تصریفی است.

loud, louder, loudest

نوع: اسم، صفت. بنابراین وند اشتقاقی است.

girl,  girlish

نوع: فعل، صفت. بنابراین وند اشتقاقی است.

care, careful, careless

نوع: فعل، فعل. بنابراین وند تصریفی است.

They work hard.   They’re working hard

معنی: کنش، واکنش. پس، با وجود اینکه نوع بن تغییر نکرده، بدلیل تغییر در معنی، اشتقاقی است.

act,  react

نوع: اسم، صفت. بنابراین وند اشتقاقی است.

virus,  antivirus

روش های واژه سازی

یک. compounding:  همکنش، همکرد. روش ترکیبی؛  که  در آن  با  ترکیب  دو واژه،  واژه ای  نو ساخته می شود. مانند:    Blackbird, textbook, waterbed,

  نمونه های فارسی : تماشاخانه، سنگفرش، آب انبار،… 

دو. blending: آمیزش. روشی که در آن، برای بیان یک چیز، از ترکیب  ویژگیهای آن چیز، واژه ای نو می سازند. تفاوت این شیوه با   روش قبلی در این است که در روش دوم، واژگان اصلی شکسته   شده و سپس از ترکیب آنها واژه ای نو پدید می آید. این کار هم   برای کوتاهی و هم برای زیبایی واژه جدید صورت می گیرد. مانند:

Telecast = television + broadcast

Smog = smoke + fog

Bit = binary + digit

Motel = motor + hotel

در زبان فارسی، بتازگی استفاده از این روش، معمول شده است. یکی از زیباترین واژه های نو ساز، کلمه “فینگیلیش” است که به جای “زبان فارسی با خط انگلیسی” استفاده می شود.  این  واژه ترکیبی،  کاملا  درست  است  و  ما نمونه های مشابه آنرا در زبانهای دیگر نیز سراغ داریم:

Franglais = French + English

Spanglish = Spanish + English

سه. :derivation وندافزایی. روشی که در آن با استفاده از پیشوندها، پسوندها و ریشه های (بن های) یک زبان ، واژه نو  ساخته می شود. پتانسیلِ  زبان های  فارسی  و  انگلیسی  در واژه سازی به روش derivation، بسیار بالا است.

نمونه فارسی : دانشگاه (بن دانش + پسوند گاه)

چهار. clipping: چینش. روشی که در آن، بخش نخست از واژه ای چند هجایی جدا شده و بجای آن واژه بکار می رود.

نمونه انگلیسی : ad (advertisement), fan (fanatic), math (mathematics),…

نمونه فارسی : آک (آکبند)، آزِ (۱) (آزمایشگاه فیزیک (۱))،…

پنج. acronym: واژه ای است که از حروف نخست چند واژه گرفته شده باشد. تفاوت acronym با abbreviation  آن است که اولی را می توان همانند یک واژه خواند، اما دومی را باید ”حرف، حرف“ یا ”جدا جدا“ به زبان آورد.

نمونه: رادار (Radio Detecting And Ranging)

ناسا (National Aetonautics and Space Administration)

ناتو (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

نکته: سازمان ”سیا“ در فارسی، acronym است، اما در انگلیسی کوته نوشت یا abbreviation به شمار می رود؛ چون در انگلیسی بصورت جدا جدا (C.I.A ، سی آی اِی) تلفظ می شود.

شش. back formation: روشی که در آن با حذفِ پسوند یک واژه، واژه ای نو ساخته می شود. نمونه:

                                                               Back Formation      Original Words

         televize                            television

         edit                                  editor

         resurrect                          resurrection

هفت. conversion: تغییر نوع دستوری واژه و ایجاد معنایی جدید، با حفظ معنای قدیمیِ آن. نمونه:

الف) واژه butter به معنای کره، امروزه بصورت فعل (کره مالیدن) نیز بکار می رود.

همچنین واژه paper به معنای کاغذ، امروزه معنای ”با کاغذ پوشاندن“ نیز می دهد.

ب) واژه must که پیشتر فعل بوده، امروزه بصورت اسم نیز بکار می رود. در فارسی نیز ما گاهی باید را بصورت اسمی بکار می بریم : ”هیچ بایدی در کار نیست.“

هشت. borrowing: وام گرفتن یک واژه از زبانی دیگر. در انگلیسی واژگان بسیاری از زبان فرانسوی وام گرفته شده و حتی دهها واژه فارسی، وارد زبان انگلیسی شده است؛ واژگانی چون shah (شاه)، paradise (پردیس)، caravan (کاروان)، lilac (نیلک، گل یاس)، khaki (رنگ خاکی)، chador (چادر)، و… از آن گروهند.

در فارسی، واژگان بسیاری از زبان عربی وام گرفته شده که نتیجه ی آن غنای زبان پارسی بوده است. متاسفانه در وامگیری از زبان های عربی و انگلیسی افراط شده که نتیجه ی  آن، چیزی جز بی خیالی نسبت به اصالت و هویت زبان رسمی ایران نبوده است.

نه. onomatopoeia: ناماوا. واژه ای که از روی آوای یک چیز ساخته شده باشد.

نمونه ی انگلیسی : baa, buzz, mew, moo, …

معادل های فارسی :  وِز وِز کردن (زنبور)، شارش یا شریدن، ماما کردن (گاو)،…

ده. تغییر معنا: بسیاری از واژگان در طول زمان، معنای خود را از دست می دهند و یا با حفظ معنی، معنای تازه ای می یابند. توجه داشته باشید که بر عکس conversion، در اینجا نوع دستوری واژه تغییری نمی کند.

برای نمونه در فارسیِ چند قرن پیش، ”مزخرف“ معنای آراسته می داده و مثلا اگر به کسی می گفتند ”عجب خانه ی مزخرفی! این سلیقه از کیست؟“، صاحب خانه بسیار سرخوش و مسرور می شده است. امروزه، مزخرف در فارسی یعنی‌ ”چِرت“ و ”بی ارزش“.

برخی زبانشناسان، تغییر معناها را در غالب extension، narrowing، specialization، generalization، amelioration، و pejoration دسته بندی کرده اند که چون همگی تغییر معنا است، از توضیح آنها خودداری می کنم.

یازده. metaphor : متافور یعنی استعاره. تنها تعداد اندکی از استعاره ها بصورت واژه جدید وارد زبان می شوند. نمونه :

Understand = under + stand، در گذشته ی دور، استعاره از نزدیک شدن به چیزی بوده است.

Holyday = holy + day یا روز مقدس، در گذشته ی دور، چون روزهای تعطیل، مناسبت مذهبی داشته است، این واژه ابتدا بصورت استعاره استفاده می شده و امروزه با معنایی کامل بکار می رود.

Grover Hudson، استاد دانشگاه میشیگان، واژه سازی از طریق جا افتادن استعاره را زیرمجموعه ی Extension می داند.

دوازده. coinage : نوآورد. ساخت واژه ای کاملا تازه که ریشه در هیچ زبانی نداشته است. برای نمونه kleenex، nylon، googol (یک و صد صفر جلوی آن) و… واژگانی است که بصورت قراردادی و بدون استفاده از هیچیک از قوانین واژه سازی ساخته شده است.

 سیزده. calque یا loan translation: واژه برساخت؛ حاصل ترجمه لفظی واژه ای است که پیشتر در زبان مقصد وجود نداشته است. برای مثل gratte-ciel از فرانسوی به صورت skyscraper وارد انگلیسی و از آنجا بصورت «آسمانخراش» وارد فارسی شده است. واژگان انگلیسی و فارسی، ترجمه لفظ به لفظ معادل فرانسوی شان هستند که ساختمان بلند را به خراشیدن آسمان تشبیه کرده است.

 

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 7:21 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

اصلی‏ترین شرط اجابت دعا

از وعده‏های خداوند متعال اجابت دعای نیایشگران است، لیکن تحقق این وعده منوط به تحقق حقیقت دعا از سوی داعی است و حقیقت دعا عبارت است از این که «انسان خود را در برابر خداوند متعال نیازمند مطلق ببیند و با پرستش او درصدد جلب عنایت و رحمت او برآید».

شناخت و جزم قلبی به این حقیقت امری ساده و تحقق آن امری آسان و سهل الوصول نیست، بلکه مقدماتی برای رسیدن به این مقام لازم است. در روایات شریفه اهل بیت علیهم‏السلام مقدماتی برای تحقق حقیقت دعا ذکر شده است که اشاره‏ای گذرا به آن سودمند است.

این مقدمات عبارتند از:

۱) شناخت

امام کاظم علیه‏السلام نقل می کند عدّه‏ای به [امام] صادق علیه‏السلام گفتند: دعا می‏کنیم؛ امّا دعایمان مستجاب نمی‏شود! ایشان فرمود: لِأَنَّکُم تَدعونَ مَن لا تَعرِفونَهُ؛۱ چون شما کسی را می‏خوانید که نمی‏شناسیدش.

۲) اخلاص

امام علی علیه‏السلام: عَلَیکَ بِإِخلاصِ الدُّعاءِ؛ فَإِنَّهُ أخلَقُ بِالإِجابَةِ؛۲ بر تو باد اخلاص داشتن در دعا؛ زیرا چنین دعایی، به اجابت، سزاوارتر است.

۳) عمل

امام علی علیه‏السلام: مَن عَظَّمَ أوامِرَ اللّه‏ِ أجابَ سُؤالَهُ؛۳ هر کس اوامر خداوند را بزرگ شمارد، خداوند درخواست او را جواب می‏دهد.

۴) پاک بودن درآمد و خوراک

امام صادق علیه‏السلام: إذا أرادَ أحَدُکُم أن یُستَجابَ لَهُ، فَلیُطَیِّب کَسبَهُ، وَلیَخرُج مِن مَظالِمِ النّاسِ، و إنَّ اللّه‏َ لا یُرفَعُ إلَیهِ دُعاءُ عَبدٍ وفی بَطنِهِ حَرامٌ، أو عِندَهُ مَظلِمَةٌ لِأَحَدٍ مِن خَلقِهِ؛۴ هر گاه فردی از شما خواست دعایش مستجاب شود، درآمدش را پاک گرداند و از زیر بار حقوق مردم بیرون برود. دعای بنده‏ای که در شکمش حرام باشد، یا حقّ یکی از خلق خدا به گردنش باشد، به درگاه خداوند بالا نمی‏رود.

۵) حضور قلب

امام صادق علیه‏السلام: إنَّ اللّه‏َ عز و جل لا یَستَجیبُ دُعاءً بِظَهرِ قَلبٍ ساهٍ، فَإِذا دَعَوتَ فَأَقبِل بِقَلبِکَ، ثُمَّ استَیقِن بِالإِجابَةِ؛۵ خداوند دعایی را که از روی دلِ غافل باشد، نمی‏پذیرد. پس هر گاه دعا کردی، با دلت رو کن، آن گاه به اجابت، یقین داشته باش.

اصلی‏ترین و محوری‏ترین شرط اجابت دعا

بررسی متون دینی و تامل در آن، خصوصا روایات مرتبط با مساله اجابت دعا، ما را به این نکته رهنمون میسازد که همه این مقدمات و نکاتی که درباره اجابت دعا مطرح شده است به یک نقطه اصلی و محوری منتهی میشود و آن چیزی جز "حال انقطاع و تهی کردن دل از امید به غیر خداوند متعال" نیست که هر چه این حال در نیایشگر تقویت شود، دعای او به اجابت، نزدیک‏تر می‏گردد.

کسی که خود را نیازمند مطلق به بی‏نیاز مطلق می‏بیند، از غیر او منقطع می‏گردد و به او می‏پیوندد.

به سخن دیگر خواندن خداوند متعال با خواندن غیر او تفاوت جوهری دارد و تا حال انقطاع به انسان دست ندهد در واقع خدا را نمی‏خواند. حال انقطاع همان حالی است که از آن تعبیر به خالی کردن دل از غیر خدا شده است، چنان که در حدیث بالا گذشت وقتی از پیامبر خدا صلی‏الله‏علیه‏و‏آله درباره اسم اعظم سؤال کردند، ایشان به فراغت دل از غیر خدا و توجه کامل به مقام ربوبی اشاره می‏کنند.

هر چه این حال در نیایشگر تقویت شود، دعای او به اجابت نزدیکتر می‏گردد، تا آنجا که ممکن است بدون دعا نیز خواسته او تأمین گردد.

امام صادق علیه‏السلام: إنَّ العَبدَ لَیَکونُ لَهُ الحاجَةُ إلَی اللّه‏ِ عز و جل، فَیَبدَأُ بِالثَّناءِ عَلَی اللّه‏ِ وَالصَّلاةِ عَلی مُحَمَّدٍ وآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَتّی یَنسی حاجَتَهُ، فَیَقضیهَا اللّه‏ُ لَهُ مِن غَیرِ أن یَسأَلَهُ إیّاها؛۷ بنده به خداوند حاجتی دارد و شروع به ثنای خداوند و صلوات فرستادن بر محمّد و خاندان محمّد می‏کند، تا جایی که یادش می‏رود حاجتی داشته است، پس خداوند حاجتش را، بی‏آن که آن را از خداوند درخواست کند، برایش برآورده می‏سازد.

به سخن دیگر، اجابت دعا، یک شرطْ بیشتر ندارد و آن، تحقّق حقیقت دعا از سوی دعاکننده است؛ اما تا حال انقطاع به انسانْ دست ندهد، حقیقت دعا تحقّق نمی‏یابد. از این رو، هنگامی که انسان در مورد نیازی از نیازهای خود، بیچاره و مُضطر شود و پناهگاهی جز خداوند متعال نبیند، دعای او مستجاب می‏گردد.

علاّمه سیّد محمّدحسین طباطبایی ـ رضوان ‏اللّه ‏تعالی‏علیه ـ در تبیین آیه: «أَمَّن یُجِیبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ إِذَا دَعَاهُ وَ یَکْشِفُ السُّوءَ...»۸ می‏فرماید: «مراد از اجابت درمانده‏ای که او را می‏خوانَد، پاسخ مثبت دادن به درخواستِ دعاکنندگان و برطرف کردن نیاز آنهاست. خداوند، صفت درماندگی را آورده تا به دعا کننده، حقیقت دعا و درخواست را یادآوری کند؛ زیرا مادام که انسان در تنگنای درماندگی نیفتد و در رسیدن به خواستش آزادی عمل داشته باشد، درخواستش خالصانه نخواهد بود و این، مطلب روشنی است.

اما این که اجابت دعا را به دعا کردن (درخواست کردن از خدا) مشروط کرده و فرموده است: «إِذَا دَعَاهُ؛ آن‏گاه که او را بخوانَد»، برای اشاره به این نکته است که در دعا باید تنها از خداوند پاک، طلب کرد و این، زمانی عملی می‏شود که دعا کننده، از تمامی اسباب و علل ظاهری دست بکشد و دلش را تنها به خداوند بپیوندد؛ اما کسی که دلش را تنها به اسباب و علل ظاهری و یا به آنها و به خداوند با هم پیوند دهد، پروردگارش را نخوانده؛ بلکه دیگری را خوانده است. پس هرگاه دعا کننده در دعا صادق باشد و تنها از خداوند بخواهد، خداوند والا، خواست او را اجابت می‏کند و گرفتاری‏ای را که او را به درخواست و دعا واداشته، برطرف می‏سازد؛ همان گونه که خداوند متعال فرموده است: «ادْعُونِی أَسْتَجِبْ لَکُمْ؛۹ مرا بخوانید تا برایتان اجابت کنم». در این‏جا شرط اجابت را تنها دعا کردن حَقیقی قرار داده است و این که درخواست، تنها باید از خداوند صورت بگیرد».۱۰

 

تهیه و تنظیم : شاهمنصوریان      موبایل : 09113912290

 

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 7:19 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]


English idioms relating to
  MONEY
 

 Back-of-the-envelope calculation

  This expression refers to quick approximate calculation done
  informally, as on the back of an envelope.
  "I don't need the exact amount. 
  Just give me a back-of-the-envelope calculation."

 Bet your bottom dollar

  If you bet your bottom dollar on something, you are absolutely
  certain of it.
  "Jack is very punctual.  You can bet your bottom dollar he'll be here
  at 9 o'clock on the dot."

 Tighten your belt.

  If you need to tighten your belt, you must spend your money carefully.
  "Another bill?  I'll have to tighten my belt this month!"

 Born with a silver spoon in
 one's mouth

  A person who is born with a silver spoon in their mouth is born
  into a very rich family.
  "She never has to worry about money; she was born with a silver spoon
   in her mouth."

 On the breadline

  People who live on the breadline have a very low income or barely
  enough money to survive.
  "Due to the recent crisis, there are more people on the breadline than
  ever before."

 Burn your fingers

  If you burn your fingers (or get your fingers burnt), you suffer financially
  as a result of foolish behaviour.
  "Jack got his fingers burnt playing on the stock market."

 A cash cow

  A product or service which is a regular source of income for a company
  is called a cash cow.
  "His latest invention turned out to be a real cash cow."

 Cash in your chips

  If you cash in your chips, you sell something, especially shares,
  either because you need the money or because you think the value is
  going to fall.
  "Andy cashed in his chips as soon as business started to slow down."

 Other side of the coin

  When you want to mention a different or contradictory aspect of a
  situation, you refer to the other side of the coin.
  "The house is lovely and spacious, but the other side of the coin is that
  it is far from shops and schools."

 Cost an arm and a leg.

  If something costs an arm and a leg, it is very expensive!
  "The house cost us an arm and a leg, but we have no regrets."

 Go Dutch

  To go Dutch with somebody means to share the cost of something,
  such as a meal or a concert.
  "Young people today tend to go Dutch when they go out together."

 Feather your nest

  To say of someone that they are feathering their nest is to say that
  they are taking advantage of their position in order to obtain money
  so as to have a comfortable life.

 Feed the kitty

  If you feed the kitty, you contribute to a collection of money called
  a "kitty" in order to help a good cause.
  Come on - every little helps. You can afford to feed the kitty for a
  good cause!

 Feel the pinch

  When someone feels the pinch, they begin to suffer from a lack of
  money.
  "With the drop in tourism, hotels and restaurants are beginning to
 feel the pinch."

 Golden handcuffs

  The term golden handcuffs refers to a large sum of money or a
  generous financial arrangement granted to an executive as an
  incentive to stay in their job, or to ensure long-term cooperation
  after their departure.

 Golden handshake

  A golden handshake is a generous sum of money given to a person
  when they leave a company or retire
  (sometimes given to encourage early retirement).

 Gravy train

  If someone is on the gravy train, they have found an easy way
  to make money, one that requires little effort and is without risk.
 "Since the village has become fashionable he charges for every
  photograph taken of his house - he's on the gravy train!"

 Hard up

   If you are hard up, you have very little money.
  "We were so hard up we had to sleep in the car."

 On the house

  Something which is "on the house" is offered free of charge,
  usually in a bar or restaurant.
  "The new owner offered us a drink on the house."

 Ill-gotten gains

  Money, profit or benefits that are made in a dishonest or illegal
  manner are called ill-gotten gains.
  "He won money by cheating and is now enjoying his ill-gotten gains."

 Keep your head above water.

  To keep one's head above water means to try to survive
  by staying out of debt, for example a small business.

 Keep the wolf from the door

  In order to keep the wolf from the door, you need to have enough
  money to buy food and other essentials.
  "My grandparents earned barely enough to keep the wolf from the door."

 Kickback

  This expression refers to money paid illegally for favourable treatment.
  "The property developers were accused of giving kickbacks to the local
  authorities."

 Laugh all the way to the bank

  A person who makes a lot of money easily, especially through
  someone else's stupidity, is said to laugh all the way to the bank.
  "If we don't succeed in renewing the contract, our competitors will be
  laughing all the way to the  bank"

 Licence to print money

  This expression refers to an officially authorized activity which enables
  people to make a lot of money without much effort.
  "The contract to supply computers to schools was a licence to print
  money."

 Live beyond one's means

  If someone lives beyond their means, they spend more money
  than they earn or can afford.
  "The cost of living was so much higher in New York that he was soon
  living beyond his means."

 Loan shark

  A loan shark is an unauthorised person who lends money at
  extremely high interest rates to people who are unable to obtain
  a loan from the bank.
  "The young immigrant was beaten because he was late paying
  back money to a loan shark."

 Lose your shirt

  If you lose your shirt, you lose all your money or possessions,
  especially as a result of speculation or gambling.
  "He lost his shirt when the bank went bankrupt."

 Make a killing

  If you say that someone has made a killing you mean that they
  have had great financial success
 "He made a killing on the stock market."

 Make ends meet.

  To make ends meet means to have enough money to live on.
  "It's hard to make ends meet on such a low salary."

 Look/feel like a million dollars

  If you look/feel like a million dollars, you look/feel extremely good.
  "With a tan and a new hairstyle, she looked like a million dollars."

 Made of money

  A person who is made of money is very rich and can buy whatever
  they want.
  "Hey! I can't afford that much! I'm not made of money!"

 Money burns a hole in your pocket

  To say that money burns a hole in somebody's pocket means that
  they are eager to spend it quickly or extravagantly. 
  "As soon as she's paid she goes shopping.  Money burns a hole in her
  pocket!"

 Money laundering

  When people launder money, they manage to conceal the source
  of illegally-obtained money so that it is believed to be legitimate.
  "Certain countries have been accused of facilitating money laundering."

 Money to burn

  People who have money to burn have so much money that
  they can spend it on anything they want.

 Money doesn't grow on trees

  To say that money doesn't grow on trees means that it is not
  plentiful or easily obtained.
  "Be careful how you spend your money David.  It doesn't grow on trees
  you know!"

 Money for old rope

  This expression refers to money earned from a task that requires
   very little effort.
  "Getting paid for watering the garden is money for old rope!" 

 Money spinner

  If an activity is a money spinner, it is a very successful way of
  making money.
  "Washing cars was quite a money spinner when I was a student."

 Money talks

  Money talks means that people with a lot of money have power
  and influence.

 More money than sense

  If you have more money than sense, you have a lot of money which
  you waste by spending it in a foolish manner.
  "He celebrated the birth of the baby by buying a sports car.   He's got
  more money than sense!"

 Put money where your mouth is

 To put money where your mouth is means to give financial support
  to activities or causes that you believe are right.

 Rake in the money

  If you rake in the money, you make money in large quantities.
 "Bob's business is so successful, he's raking in the money."

 See the colour of somebody's money

  If you want to see the colour of somebody's money, you want to
  make sure that the person in question has enough money to pay you
  before you accept to do something.
 "I want to see the colour of his money before shipping the goods."

 Throw good money after bad

  Someone who spends additional money on something that was
  already considered a bad investment is said to throw good money
  after bad.
  "Buying a second-hand computer and then spending money to have
   it repaired is throwing good money after bad!"

 Throw money at something

  If you throw money at something, you try to solve a problem by
  spending money on it, without using any other methods.
  "The refugee problem cannot be solved just by throwing money at it."

 Nest egg

  If you have a nest egg, you have a reserve of money which you put
  aside for future needs.
  "Our parents consider the money from the sale of their house as a
  nest egg for their old age."

 Be paid peanuts

  If you are paid peanuts, you have a very low salary.
  "Anne has a very interesting job but she's paid peanuts. 
  Her salary is very low. "

 Pick up the tab

  If you pick up the tab, you pay the bill or pay the cost of something.
  "There was a celebration lunch for the group and Bill picked up the tab."

 Pretty penny

  If something costs you a pretty penny, it costs you a lot of money.
  "That new car must have cost him a pretty penny!"

 Price oneself out of the market

  If you price yourself out of the market, you charge such a high price
  for your goods or services that nobody buys them.
  "He was so eager to make money that he priced himself out of the
  market."

 From rags to riches

  If you go from rags to riches, you start off being very poor and
  become very rich and successful
  "By renovating old houses in the right places, he went from rags to riches."

 Rake in the money

  If you rake in the money, you make money in large quantities.
  "Bob's business is so successful, he's raking in the money."

 Rob Peter to pay Paul

  If a person robs Peter to pay Paul, they pay one debt with money
  borrowed from somewhere else, thus creating another debt.
  "David borrowed money from a friend to cover his overdraft;
  a typical case of robbing Peter to pay Paul!"

 See the colour of somebody's money

  If you want to see the colour of somebody's money, you want
  to make sure that the person in question has enough money to pay you
  before you accept to do something.
  "I want to see the colour of his money before shipping the goods."

 Set you back 

  The sum of money something sets you back is the amount it
  costs you.
  "Changing the heating system would set us back about $5 000."

 On a shoestring

  If you do something on a shoestring, you do it with very little money.
  "When I was a student I lived on a shoestring."

 Splash out

  If you splash out on something, you spend a lot of money on it.
  "Sarah's parents really splashed out on her wedding."

 It's a steal!

  If you find something you want to buy for a very low price, much
  lower than what it is worth, you can say "It's a steal"!
  "He's selling it for $10? At that price it's a steal!"

 Why buy a cow when you can get
 milk for free?

  This expression refers to not paying for something that you can
  obtain for free.
  (Sometimes used to refer to a decision not to marry when you can
   have the benefits of marriage without any commitment.)
  Rent is high so Bobby is still living with his parents.  He says:
   Why buy a cow when you can get milk for free?

تهیه و تنظیم : شاهمنصوریان      موبایل : 09113912290

 

 

 

[ چهارشنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 7:14 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

 

زبان انگليسي (1) سال اول متوسطه

 

  درس دوم
کاربرد it به عنوان فاعل ، Should

 

  لغات درس دوم

kilometer

 كيلومتر

 

green

 سبز

who is it on the phone ?

 چه كسي روي خط تلفن است ؟

 

important

 مهم

who's that man ?

 آن مرد كيست ؟

 

japan

 ژاپن

grass

 علف - گياه – سبزه

 

jungle

 جنگل

where do you come from ?

 شما اهل كجا هستيد؟

 

land

 زمين

what do you do ?

 شغل شما چيست ؟

 

laugh

 خنديدن

travel

 مسافرت رفتن – سفر كردن

 

meter

 متر

take an exam

 امتحان دادن

 

monkey

 ميمون

stand in line

 به خط ايستادن

 

necessary

 لازم

‌ go up

 بالارفتن

 

north

 شمال

He's from

 او اهل .... است ؟

 

top

 بالا

get late

 ديرشدن

 

quite

 كاملاً

funny

 جالب – بامزه

 

ripe

 رسيده

full (of sth)

 پر (از چيزي)

 

Asia

 آسيا

fix

 ‌ثابت كردن – تعمير كردن

 

awake

 ‌بيدار

field

 مزرعه – ميدان

 

back

 پشت

farmhand

 دستيار كشاورز

 

better

 بهتر

farm

 مزرعه

 

clever

 باهوش

for (from)

 دور (از)

 

cloudy

 ابري

drop down

 پايين انداختن

 

coconut

  نارگيل

dialog

 مكالمه – گفتگو

 

cold

 سرد

dark

 تيره – تاريك

 

cow

 گاو

correctly

 به درستي

 

Europe

 اروپا

as

 به عنوان

 

exam

 امتحان

‌climb

 بالارفتن

 

something

 چيزي

also

 هم – هم چنين

 

spring

 بهار

snow

 ‌برف – برف باريدن

 

stay

 ماندن

raise

 پرورش دادن

 

thirsty

 تشنه

post office

 دفتر پست

 

Turkey

 تركيه

piece

 تكه – قطعه

 

understand

 فهميدن

pick

 چيدن – برداشتن

 

village

 دهكده

make

 ساختن – درست كردن

 

weather

 هوا

long

 دراز – طويل

 

which

 كدام

have a cold

 سرماخوردگي داشتن

 

winter

 زمستان

It's me

 من هستم .... منم.

 

How for

 چه قدر فاصله است .... ؟

 

keep

 نگه داشتن

 

 

  دستور زبان

گرامر يا دستور زبان اين درس درباره «استفاده از It به عنوان فاعل جمله و كاربرد should در جملات انگليسي مي باشد كه در زير به شرح آن مي پردازيم.  

 

  1 – شما قبلاً با It به معناي «آن» يا «او» به عنوان ضمير آشنا شده ايد. اكنون در اين درس مي بينيد كه It مي تواند به عنوان فاعل جمله به كار رود. مانند

روز سردي است .

It is a cold day.

چيدن گل كار مشكلي است.

It is hard to pick the flower.
 

 

  2 – It همراه مشتقات فعل be و يك عبارت اسمي ، يك صفت يا يك فعل مانند rain، snow و غيره به كار مي رود. به چند مثال توجه كنيد.

It isn't very late.

‌خيلي دير شده است.

It is raining.

‌باران مي بارد.

It is 5 o'clock.

ساعت 5 است

It is easy to learn English.

ياد گرفتن انگليسي كار آساني است .
 

 

  3 – دقت كنيد كه در اين جمله ها It‌معناي واقعي ندارد و فقط براي اين به كار مي رود كه جاي فاعل را در جمله پر كند. بنابراين آن را معني نمي كنيم. مانند :

وقت ناهار است .

It is time for lunch.

براي معني كردن جمله فوق نمي گوييم «آن وقت ناهار است» بلكه مي گوييم «وقت ناهار است».
 

 

  4 – شما در درس قبل با فعل ( must = بايد) آشنا شديد. در اين درس با فعل كمكي should به معناي بايستن نيز اشنا مي شويد. Should معناي بايستن و اجبار را مي رساند ولي مثل فعل must به معناي جبر و قانون نيست بلكه يك وظيفه اخلاقي را مي رساند . يا كاري كه اگر انجام شود بهتر است. به عبارت ديگر sould , must هر دو به معناي «بايد» هستند. ولي should از must‌ ضعيف تر است.

او بايد امشب مطالعه كند

He should study tonight.
 

 

  5 – بعد از فعل كمكي should فعل اصلي به صورت ساده (مصدر بدون to) به كار مي رود.

She is sick today. She should stay in bed.



او امروز بيمار است. او بايد در رختخواب بماند.
 

 

  6 – براي سؤالي ساختن با should بايد should را به اول جمله بياوريم ؟

آيا او بايد امشب مطالعه كند؟

should he study tonight ?
 

 

  7- براي منفي ساختن از should not و يا مخفف آن shouldn't ‌استفاده مي كنيم.

آنها نبايد كلاس را ترك كنند.

They shouldn't leave the class.
 

 

  كاربرد زبان

«دريافتن درباره اشخاص»
finding out about people

شما اهل كجا هستيد؟

A – where do you came from?

من اهل ژاپن هستم .

B- I come from japan .

شغل شما چيست؟

A- what do you do ?

من يك معلم هستم .

B- I'm a teacher.

آدرس شما چيست؟

A – what's your address?

خيابان آزادي شماره 172

B - 172 Azadi Avenue.  

  تمرين
پاسخ صحيح را از ميان گزينه هاي داده شده انتخاب كنيد.

1 – what time is it ?"……… is 10 o'clock.
1) this
2) that
3) it
4) the
2 – what day is today?" ……..is Sunday."
1) this
2) that
3) it
4) _

3 – How far is …….from here to your school?
1) it
2) this
3) these
4) that

4 – who is on the phone? "………is me ".
1) it
2) she
3) he
4) that

5 – It is ………….today.
1) rain
2)cloudy
3)snow
4)wind

6- They should …….early today morning.
1) get up
2) to get up
3) pot up
4) getting up

7– she has a test tomorrow. She should …. Hard to night.
1) to study
2) study
3) studied
4) have studied

8 – "……….."? I'm a doctor.
1) where are you form?
2) what's your name?
3) where do you come from?
4) what do you do ?

9 – where …..? I come from Tehran.
1) are you come from.
2) do you come from
3) are you come.
4) do you come.

10 – Is it raining or snowing? It ……….

1) is cloudy
2) is windy
3) is snowing
4) raining  

 

  پاسخ :

پاسخ

سوال

3

1

3

2

1

3

1

4

2

5

1

6

2

7

4

8

2

9

4

10

 

تهیه و تنظیم : علی شاهمنصوریان       تلفن تماس : 09113912290    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[ جمعه دهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ 12:58 ] [ علی شاهمنصوریان ] [ ]

بسمه تعالی

در جدول زیر حدودا  50 الی 60 لغت وجود دارد که مربوط به لغات دروس 1 الی 8 کتاب زبان انگلیسی سال سوم راهنمایی می باشد لطفا آنها را پیدا کرده  و آنها را در جدول با علامت مشخص نمایید.   


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